WCFIA: Is there anything about our current time that dictates the need for a change in tactics?CHENOWETH: Mobilizing without a long-term strategy or plan seems to be happening a lot right now, and that’s not what’s worked in the past. However, there’s nothing about the age we’re in that undermines the basic principles of success. I don’t think that the factors that influence success or failure are fundamentally different. Part of the reason I say that is because they’re basically the same things we observed when Gandhi was organizing in India as we do today. There are just some characteristics of our age that complicate things a bit.WCFIA: You make the surprising claim that even when they fail, civil resistance campaigns often lead to longer-term reforms than violent campaigns do. How does that work?CHENOWETH: The finding is that civil resistance campaigns often lead to longer-term reforms and changes that bring about democratization compared with violent campaigns. Countries in which there were nonviolent campaigns were about 10 times likelier to transition to democracies within a five-year period compared to countries in which there were violent campaigns — whether the campaigns succeeded or failed. This is because even though they “failed” in the short term, the nonviolent campaigns tended to empower moderates or reformers within the ruling elites who gradually began to initiate changes and liberalize the polity.One of the best examples of this is the Kefaya movement in the early 2000s in Egypt. Although it failed in the short term, the experiences of different activists during that movement surely informed the ability to effectively organize during the 2011 uprisings in Egypt. Another example is the 2007 Saffron Revolution in Myanmar, which was brutally suppressed at the time but which ultimately led to voluntary democratic reforms by the government by 2012. Of course, this doesn’t mean that nonviolent campaigns always lead to democracies — or even that democracy is a cure-all for political strife. As we know, in Myanmar, relative democratization in the country’s institutions has been accompanied by extreme violence against the Rohingya community there. But it’s important to note that such cases are the exceptions rather than the norm. And democratization processes tend to be much bumpier when they occur after large-scale armed conflict instead of civil resistance campaigns, as was the case in Myanmar.WCFIA: What are your current projects?CHENOWETH: I’m still collecting data on nonviolent campaigns around the world. And I’m also collecting data on the nonviolent actions that are happening every day in the United States through a project called the Crowd Counting Consortium, with Jeremy Pressman of the University of Connecticut. It began in 2017, when Jeremy and I were collecting data during the Women’s March. Someone tweeted a link to our spreadsheet, and then we got tons of emails overnight from people writing in to say, “Oh, your number in Portland is too low; our protest hasn’t made the newspapers yet, but we had this many people.” There were the most incredible appeals. There was a nursing home in Encinitas, Calif., where 50 octogenarians organized an indoor women’s march with their granddaughters. Their local news had shot a video of them and they asked to be counted, and we put them in the sheet. People are very active and it’s not part of the broader public discourse about where we are as a country. I think it’s important to tell that story.This originally appeared on the Weatherhead Center website. Part two of the series is now online.The artwork, “Love and Revolution,” revolutionary graffiti at Saleh Selim Street on the island of Zamalek, Cairo, was photographed by Hossam el-Hamalawy on Oct. 23, 2011. Recent research suggests that nonviolent civil resistance is far more successful in creating broad-based change than violent campaigns are, a somewhat surprising finding with a story behind it.When Erica Chenoweth started her predoctoral fellowship at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs in 2006, she believed in the strategic logic of armed resistance. She had studied terrorism, civil war, and major revolutions — Russian, French, Algerian, and American — and suspected that only violent force had achieved major social and political change. But then a workshop led her to consider proving that violent resistance was more successful than the nonviolent kind. Since the question had never been addressed systematically, she and colleague Maria J. Stephan began a research project.For the next two years, Chenoweth and Stephan collected data on all violent and nonviolent campaigns from 1900 to 2006 that resulted in the overthrow of a government or in territorial liberation. They created a data set of 323 mass actions. Chenoweth analyzed nearly 160 variables related to success criteria, participant categories, state capacity, and more. The results turned her earlier paradigm on its head — in the aggregate, nonviolent civil resistance was far more effective in producing change.The Weatherhead Center for International Affairs (WCFIA) sat down with Chenoweth, a new faculty associate who returned to the Harvard Kennedy School this year as professor of public policy, and asked her to explain her findings and share her goals for future research. Chenoweth is also the Susan S. and Kenneth L. Wallach Professor at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study.Q&AErica ChenowethWCFIA: In your co-authored book, “Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict,” you explain clearly why civil resistance campaigns attract more absolute numbers of people — in part it’s because there’s a much lower barrier to participation compared with picking up a weapon. Based on the cases you have studied, what are the key elements necessary for a successful nonviolent campaign?CHENOWETH: I think it really boils down to four different things. The first is a large and diverse participation that’s sustained.The second thing is that [the movement] needs to elicit loyalty shifts among security forces in particular, but also other elites. Security forces are important because they ultimately are the agents of repression, and their actions largely decide how violent the confrontation with — and reaction to — the nonviolent campaign is going to be in the end. But there are other security elites, economic and business elites, state media. There are lots of different pillars that support the status quo, and if they can be disrupted or coerced into noncooperation, then that’s a decisive factor.The third thing is that the campaigns need to be able to have more than just protests; there needs to be a lot of variation in the methods they use.The fourth thing is that when campaigns are repressed — which is basically inevitable for those calling for major changes — they don’t either descend into chaos or opt for using violence themselves. If campaigns allow their repression to throw the movement into total disarray or they use it as a pretext to militarize their campaign, then they’re essentially co-signing what the regime wants — for the resisters to play on its own playing field. And they’re probably going to get totally crushed.,WCFIA: Is there any way to resist or protest without making yourself more vulnerable?CHENOWETH: People have done things like bang pots and pans or go on electricity strikes or something otherwise disruptive that imposes costs on the regime even while people aren’t outside. Staying inside for an extended period equates to a general strike. Even limited strikes are very effective. There were limited and general strikes in Tunisia and Egypt during their uprisings and they were critical.WCFIA: A general strike seems like a personally costly way to protest, especially if you just stop working or stop buying things. Why are they effective?CHENOWETH: This is why preparation is so essential. Where campaigns have used strikes or economic noncooperation successfully, they’ve often spent months preparing by stockpiling food, coming up with strike funds, or finding ways to engage in community mutual aid while the strike is underway. One good example of that comes from South Africa. The anti-apartheid movement organized a total boycott of white businesses, which meant that black community members were still going to work and getting a paycheck from white businesses but were not buying their products. Several months of that and the white business elites were in total crisis. They demanded that the apartheid government do something to alleviate the economic strain. With the rise of the reformist Frederik Willem de Klerk within the ruling party, South African leader P.W. Botha resigned. De Klerk was installed as president in 1989, leading to negotiations with the African National Congress [ANC] and then to free elections, where the ANC won overwhelmingly. The reason I bring the case up is because organizers in the black townships had to prepare for the long term by making sure that there were plenty of food and necessities internally to get people by, and that there were provisions for things like Christmas gifts and holidays.WCFIA: How important is the overall number of participants in a nonviolent campaign?CHENOWETH: One of the things that isn’t in our book, but that I analyzed later and presented in a TEDx Boulder talk in 2013, is that a surprisingly small proportion of the population guarantees a successful campaign: just 3.5 percent. That sounds like a really small number, but in absolute terms it’s really an impressive number of people. In the U.S., it would be around 11.5 million people today. Could you imagine if 11.5 million people — that’s about three times the size of the 2017 Women’s March — were doing something like mass noncooperation in a sustained way for nine to 18 months? Things would be totally different in this country. “Countries in which there were nonviolent campaigns were about 10 times likelier to transition to democracies within a five-year period compared to countries in which there were violent campaigns — whether the campaigns succeeded or failed.” — Erica Chenoweth
The sacked agent has now threatened to drag Osimhen to court if he did not get his share of the contract, according to Football Italia.The source close to Osimhen also confirmed that it was on account of this under-the-table-deal that the striker initially turned down the Napoli offer last week after he had visited the club in Naples.However, that has since been sorted out with the arrival of a new agent.Radio Punto Nuovo also reported that Osimhen has joined the negotiations on Lille President Gerard Lopez’s yacht off the coast of Sardinia.By all accounts, he could have his medical with Napoli today.Share this:FacebookRedditTwitterPrintPinterestEmailWhatsAppSkypeLinkedInTumblrPocketTelegram Victor Osimhen Femi Solaja with agency reportWith Victor Osimhen’s expected switch to Napoli to be officially confirmed today, there seems to be a little twist in the deal following reports that his unnamed agent has headed to court to sue the Super Eagles forward.The agent, according to sources close to the player and as reported by RAI Sport and CalcioNapoli24, has been sacked by Osimhen on the ground of allegedly trying to negotiate extra bonuses for himself rather than focusing on the best deal for the player.
On Sunday afternoon, Provost Michael Quick sent out a memorandum to all USC students and staff detailing the University’s response to President Donald Trump’s executive order on immigration. The order denies entry into the United States to citizens of seven countries, including Iran, Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Libya, Somalia and Sudan. The memorandum reiterated USC’s status as a global university, and pledged the support of the administration and staff for international students affected by the executive order. Quick advised students from affected nations to postpone any and all international travel for the time being, and listed several resources such as the Office of International Services and the USC Gould School of Law’s Immigration Clinic for any student seeking more information about their specific case. Furthermore, Quick invited students with any ideas for how the University can support its students during this difficult time to email them to his office. The memorandum comes on the heels of an online petition asking that President C.L. Max Nikias and the USC administration condemn Trump’s executive order, on behalf of the thousands of international students that call USC home as well as millions of other international students around the country. The petition, which has been circulating on Facebook, also calls on Nikias and the USC administration to ensure that a USC education remains accessible, diverse and welcoming for all deserving students, no matter their ethnic, religious or citizenship background.
The first time Darrion Caldwell faced off with Kyogi Horiguchi, everything was on the Japanese standout’s terms.The fight took place in Saitama, Japan at Rizin 14 and was contested inside a ring, with the vacant Rizin bantamweight title hanging in the balance. While the rule set allowed for kicks to the head of a grounded opponent, it also limited elbow strikes, a staple of the Bellator champion’s arsenal. Join DAZN and watch Bellator 222 on June 14Despite starting well, Caldwell would fall to the former UFC flyweight, who has morphed into one of the top pound-for-pound fighters in the world since his release, as Horiguchi made him pay for leaving his neck exposed on a takedown attempt early in the third round, securing a fight-ending guillotine choke.“I think everything that could have went wrong, went wrong,” said Caldwell, reflecting on his first encounter with Horiguchi before their second meeting Friday night at Madison Square Garden. “Obviously we were fighting in a ring, as opposed to a cage, so that was definitely foreign to me.“I did a few mitt sessions inside a ring leading up to that fight, but no wrestling, no grappling, but not really anything where I got used to it and got the feel of it,” continued Caldwell, who carries a 13-2 matchup into the Bellator 222 main card opener. “The rules in general (were a challenge). You see me early on in a kimura and then in the course of action, we had to break and start again and break, so there was a lot going on there.”Now, just shy of six months since their first encounter, Caldwell gets the opportunity to avenge his loss — only this time, he’ll be the one with the home field advantage.Although he now trains and resides in California, Friday’s event at MSG is like a homecoming for the 31-year-old titleholder, who was born and raised in Rahway, New Jersey.From the high school where Caldwell was a three-sport athlete and a three-time state champion on the wrestling mats to “The Mecca” in Manhattan takes about 40 minutes on the Garden State Parkway, give or take, depending on traffic.And as meaningful as it is to Caldwell to compete inside the venerable old barn situated atop Penn Station, it’s the fact that it’s his belt on the line this time that has him even more fired up for Friday.“(This fight) means everything,” said Caldwell, who won the Bellator bantamweight title from Eduardo Dantas in October 2017. “He’s coming on my home turf and he’s coming to fight for my belt. He’s essentially coming to where I was born and raised, so for him to come on this side and try to take what’s mine, there is a lot more on the table here for me.“It’s a cool experience to be able to fight at Madison Square Garden, but more importantly, it’s a better feeling knowing that I’m going out there to fight for a world championship,” he continued. “Doesn’t matter if I’m fighting in Madison Square Garden or Thackerville, Oklahoma — to defend that Bellator banner and my world championship belt means more to me than anything.”While Caldwell has been out of action since New Year’s Eve in Saitama, Horiguchi returned to action towards the end of April, collecting his ninth consecutive victory under the Rizin banner and pushing his winning streak to 12 in the process.The 28-year-old, who trains out of American Top Team in Coconut Creek, FL., is 27-2 overall and 21-1 over his last 22 fights, with his lone loss coming in a “sooner- than-anticipated” UFC flyweight title fight against Demetrious Johnson at UFC 186 in Montreal.Since then, he’s beaten a number of veteran talents and a host of champions from other promotions, including Caldwell, to emerge as one of the top fighters in the sport and a burgeoning superstar in his native Japan.“I think it was more important for him to get another fight in before he fought me again,” Caldwell said when asked about facing Horiguchi in back-to-back fights. “As we see, he felt it was necessary to go out and fight some chump that just got booted from the UFC and make it seem like it was a big dal.”Though he was dismissive of Horiguchi’s bout with Ben Nguyen, a catchweight affair at 132 pounds the Rizin champion won by technical knockout in under three minutes, Caldwell does acknowledge the skill his adversary on Friday brings to the table and believes he’s a welcomed addition to the Bellator MMA roster.MORE: Join DAZN and watch more than 100 fight nights a yearHe simply believes Horiguchi has bitten off more than he can chew for his promotional debut. “I think Horiguchi is a great addition to the Bellator bantamweight division and he’s going to come in here and mix things up,” said Caldwell, who acknowledged that he was eager for a new threat to be added to the 135-pound ranks after ostensibly cleaning out the division on the way to winning and defending his title. “But I think he bit off a little more than he can chew in his first go-round.“I’m going to go out there and strangle this guy. I’m going to put my hands and elbows on him,” he continued. “When I say ‘everything went wrong,’ those are things I couldn’t do — I couldn’t put my elbows on this guy. These are rules that don’t favor me. Sure, it’s cool to be able to soccer kick somebody in the face while they’re grounded, but that’s not my game. I like to apply pressure, throw elbows, land solid strikes on the ground and take the will out of my opponent.“I know to break Horiguchi mentally is going to be a task,” Caldwell added. “So, June 14, I’m going to go out there and shut his body off.”
Danny Ings claims he does not know where he will be playing his football next season.The 22-year-old, who struck 12 goals for relegated Burnley in his debut Premier League season, will leave Turf Moor once his contract expires in June.The Clarets will be due compensation for their star man, which is likely to be in the region of £5million.Liverpool have been heavily linked with a move for the England Under-21 international, while Tottenham are understood to have registered their interest in the player.But Ings insists he has yet to decide on his next move, telling the Lancashire Telegraph: “My holiday’s the first thing on my mind. I’m looking forward to a bit of downtime and after that it’s going to be hard work again.“It’s going to be a short summer for me this year but I love football so I’d play it every day if I could. After that I’ll sit down with my agent and discuss my future then.“At the moment it’s all up in the air. I don’t know what’s going to happen.” 1 Danny Ings
8 March 2012 South African companies compare favourably to the rest of the world with 28% of senior management positions held by women – compared to a global average of 21% – but more innovation is needed to make significant progress in this field, says consultancy Grant Thornton. The figures are contained in the 2012 Grant Thornton International Business Report, which surveys trends in privately held businesses in 40 economies in the world. According to the survey, Botswana is the African country with the highest proportion of women in senior management, at 39%.SA slightly ahead of BRICS average South Africa’s figure of 28% is slightly ahead of the 26% average for the BRICS countries – Brazil, Russia, India, China and SA. Russia was the overall standout, however, and is now the surveyed economy with the highest proportion of women in senior positions, at 46% – an improvement of 10 percentage points over the previous survey. The G7 countries – Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK and the US – lagged the global average, with only 18% of women in senior management positions. Italy was the exception, showing the biggest improvement in women holding senior positions, climbing by 14 percentage points to 36% and 6th position overall. SA’s figure flat for last 5 years “The fact that South Africa’s women are strongly represented in senior management relative to many other parts of the world says a lot about the progress the country has made in promoting gender equality,” Jeanette Hern, head of corporate finance at Grant Thornton Johannesburg, said in a statement on Tuesday. “However, the fact that this figure has changed very little in the past five years, indicates that we need more innovative solutions in order to make a significant dent in the number of women still excluded from senior management.” South Africa’s figure stood at 29% in 2007, dropping to 28% in 2009 and 27% in 2011.More accommodating workplaces Such solutions, according to Hern, could include finding more creative ways to accommodate women in the workplace. “Only 39% of the women surveyed in South Africa indicated that their businesses offer flexible working conditions such as flexible hours and alternative locations to work from.” Hern also believes business need to consider women for a greater spectrum of management roles. The research shows the majority of women in senior management in South Africa are either human resource directors or finance directors (20% each). Of those companies surveyed, 8% had women chief executive officers (CEOs) and 9% women chief operating officers (COOs), compared to a global average of 9% and 12% respectively. “Although there is still a way to go to make significant inroads, this is encouraging and a marked improvement from last year, when [South African] women held 3% of these positions,” said Hern. “There has definitely been a commendable increase in women holding senior positions in South Africa, but there is no room for complacency and still much room for growth. “The country has come a long way in promoting gender equality, but the numbers should reflect this. It should be recognised that women can make important contributions, and not only in the fields of human resources or finance.” SAinfo reporter
29 March 2016By Shamin ChibbaSouth African defensive midfielder Hlompho Kekana scored one of the best goals of the weekend when he shot from 70 yards out to beat Cameroonian goalkeeper Guy N’dy Assembe. Now, many are calling it a strong candidate for the FIFA Puskas Award for goal of the year.Media, fellow players, coaches and supporters took to Twitter to show their appreciation for the strike.Don’t think I’ve seen hlompo score a normal goal only crackers #kekana #bafanavscameroon— Roger Da Costa (@rogerdac) 26 March 2016Wow!! @Hlompho_Kekana take a bow!! Incredible goal — Dean Furman (@de4no22) 26 March 2016Wow !!!! What a goal!!! What a strike!!!! by Hlompo— Bernard Parker (@BernardParker) 26 March 2016Kekana also took to Twitter, to thank his supporters.Thanks everyone for the messages. Feel honored to make South Africans proud, and now we look ahead to the next game.— Hlompho Kekana (@Hlompho_Kekana) 27 March 2016Bafana Bafana coach Shakes Mashaba said it was one of the best goals he had ever seen and had a chance of winning the Puskas Award. “And if doesn’t win the (Puskas) award in world soccer, then I would say there is something wrong.”Bafana Bafana drew 2-2 in their Afcon qualifier against Cameroon in Limbe on Saturday, 26 March. South Africa twice gave up the lead to give the Indomitable Lions a draw.Watch Kekana’s wonder strike:British media have been in awe of the 30-year-old since Saturday. The Guardian newspaper likened his goal to David Beckham’s against Wimbledon on the first day of the 1996-97 Premier League season.South Africa’s Kekana scores Beckham-esque goal in Cameroon draw. @ed_aarons https://t.co/krAnIZIlCd (Pic: AP) pic.twitter.com/MVh8DsqzCI— Guardian sport (@guardian_sport) 26 March 2016Mirror Sport already believes Kekana has wrapped up the Puskas Award. Reporter Richard Innes suggested that it was even better than Beckham’s scorcher.“It’s not just that he scores from his own half. Plenty of players have got lucky with a long-rage ‘hit and hope’ in the past. This is not one of those instances,” he wrote. “There’s no luck involved; it is a very deliberate, brilliantly executed bit of skill. The Cameroon keeper doesn’t do much wrong; there isn’t even a lot of goal for Kekana to hit.”The game against Cameroon marked Kekana’s return to international football after two years. He said he had practised shooting from such range during his training sessions at Mamelodi Sundowns. “I’ve been practising that type of goal at my club for the past four months and am glad it all came together yesterday.“At training I would hit more than 10 such balls without success, so you can imagine the joy of that goal against such a powerhouse.”Siphiwe Tshabalala’s goal against Mexico in the 2010 FIFA World Cup opener at Soccer City was the first time a South African was nominated for the Puskas Award. However, he lost out to Turkey’s Hamit Altintop.Relive Tshabalala’s goal against Mexico:South Africa will host Cameroon at Durban’s Moses Mabhida Stadium tonight. They will need to win their remaining three Group M matches if they are to qualify. They currently have two points from three games, five points behind leaders Cameroon.
Top South African brands are outpacing GDP, top 50 growing 16.1% YoYTelcos lead the way: MTN and Vodacom retain 1st and 2nd position Banking sector is nation’s most valuable, 4 brands claim spots in top 10In contrast, healthcare sector struggling, brands recording significant decline in brand value Castle Lager has entered top 10 for first time, brand value R16.6 billionEngen, Clicks and Discovery are nation’s fastest-growing brands, up 67%, 59% and 58% respectively Tongaat Hulett falls out of rankings, amid accounting scandal Capitec is strongest, BSI score 88.7 out of 100 View the full Brand Finance South Africa 50 2019 report here Brands that feature in the Brand Finance South Africa 50 report are defying the flat South African economy and recording healthy brand value growth, according to the latest report by Brand Finance, the world’s leading independent brand valuation consultancy. These brands are outpacing the country’s GDP, with the top 50 recording a 16.1% brand value growth rate YoY and the top 10 recording an impressive 19.8% growth rate YoY.Jeremy Sampson, Managing Director, Brand Finance Africa, commented:“We can celebrate that the top South African brands are consistently recording high brand value growth rates, in stark contrast to the nation’s sick economy, which is currently falling short of other countries’ growth across the continent.”David Haigh, CEO, Brand Finance commented:“The impressive performance of South Africa’s most valuable brands poses a potential source of growth for the economy that, in turn, could lead to increased job creation and funds flowing to the fiscus.”Despite there being a variety of sectors included in the ranking, tech is a sector that is greatly underrepresented. There is a need to develop brands within this sector if South Africa wants to close the gap with leading economies.Telcos lead the way Telecommunications brands, MTN and Vodacom, lead the way in the rankings claiming first and second position respectively.Africa’s biggest telcos company, MTN (brand value up 15% to R50.3 billion), has grown its subscriber level steadily over the last year and boosted revenue.Vodacom’s brand value increased by 21% to R33.3 billion, despite the brand recording revenue losses in its South African business. The strong results from Vodacom’s international operations and the benefits reaped from the 2017 Safaricom acquisition, however, have provided solid growth for the brand over the last year.The MTN-Vodacom duopoly is continuously grappling for greater market share across the country, resulting in data price wars, and thus leaving smaller brands struggling to compete including, Telkom (up 15% to R5.9 billion) and Cell C (up 5% to R3.9 billion).Although both brands have recorded modest growth compared with other brands across the ranking, they have achieved good results against the backdrop of falling telco brand values around the world, as they contend with the increased commoditisation of core carrier services and the need to implement new technologies requiring significant capital investment, such as the 5G mobile telephony.Banks cash in as most valuable sectorThe banking sector is the most valuable sector in the country with First National Bank, ABSA and Standard Bank completing the top 5.FNB has sustained strong brand value growth after it broke into the top 3 last year, its brand value increasing a healthy 32% to R25.5 billion. The bank’s retail division has expanded its customer base, extended its credit line to top clients and recorded high levels of transactions through its app, all demonstrating its defiance to the economic troubles in the country.Following Barclays’ sale of its final stake in ABSA in 2017, it has begun its return to the global banking marketplace. ASBA (up 25% to R23.5 billion) has opened offices in the US and UK in a bid to support growth on the continent, as more European businesses are looking towards Africa for investment amid Brexit uncertainty.Standard Bank (up 22% to R22.5 billion), sitting in 5th place, has delivered sustainable earnings growth, which the brand attributes to the strength and breadth of its client franchise. Beer brands bubble upCastle lager, the Nation Beer of South Africa, has jumped into the top 10 for the first time, its brand value increasing 19% to R16.6 billion. 100% grown and produced in the country, Castle is a much-loved drink at home in South Africa, as well abroad, sold in over 40 counties worldwide. The brand continues to benefit from its multiple sports sponsorship partnerships and from successful marketing drives, most notably the #SmashTheLabel campaign, which encouraged South African’s to unite against discrimination.Besides Castle, three further beer brands have entered the ranking for the first time: Carling Black Label (up 26% to R12.7 billion); Hansa Pilsner (up 13% to R4.2 billion); and Soweto Gold Superior (up 35% to R2.9 billion). The latter a home-grown brand acquired by Heineken.Healthcare sector strugglingIn contrast, healthcare brands have suffered across the board with MediClinic (down 50% to R5.8 billion), Netcare (down 40% to R3.2 billion) and Life Healthcare (down 17% to R1.9 billion) recording high brand value losses.These three hospital group brands have a combined market share of 83% of the national private facilities market and have therefore faced criticism that the sector is too concentrated.Following the release of the Competition Commission’s Health Market Inquiry’s report, the sector has come under scrutiny for rising consumer costs and lack of transparency, both no doubt impacting brand values.MediClinic, which has suffered the biggest knock to its brand value, has seen a dismal performance from its Swiss arm following regulatory changes in the country.Trouble for TongaatSouth Africa’s largest sugar producer, Tongaat Hulett, has dropped out of this year’s ranking, following an accounting scandal in which the brand is currently being investigated for overstating its 2018 results. It was recently announced that Tongaat has withdrawn its listing on the stock exchange and 5,000 employees have been sent retrenchment letters.This is not the first time a South African brand has hit the headlines for accounting fraud. In late 2017, it was uncovered that Steinhoff had recorded fictitious and irregular transactions, which substantially inflated the brand’s profits, and resulted in the brand’s market value wiping out and the CEO’s resignation.Ones to watch: Engen, Clicks & Discovery Oil company, Engen, is the fastest-growing brand in South Africa, recording an impressive 67% rise in brand value to R6.7 billion. In 2018, Engen built 15 new service stations across the country, a record for the brand, and partnered with doughnut giant Krispy Kreme to launch its new forecourts, part of the brand’s efforts to remain an attractive stop-over.Clicks also boasts a significant rise in brand value, increasing 59% to R6.1 billion. The retailer has committed to its expansion programme over the last year, and with dozens of new stores in the pipeline, the company shows no signs of slowing down as it aims to hit its 900-store target.Discovery (up 58% to R13.1 billion) is the nation’s largest health-insurance administrator and has seen major success through its Vitality rewards scheme which awards points for completing various online health assessments and routine medical checks.In addition to measuring overall brand value, Brand Finance also evaluates the relative strength of brands, based on factors such as marketing investment, familiarity, loyalty, staff satisfaction, and corporate reputation. Alongside revenue forecasts, brand strength is a crucial driver of brand value. According to these criteria, Discovery is the world’s second strongest insurance brand, behind China’s Ping An, with a Brand Strength Index (BSI) score of 86.0 out of 100 and a corresponding AAA brand strength rating and the 5th strongest in the nation.Capitec is the nation’s strongest Capitec (up 15% to R7.8 billion) defends its position as South Africa’s strongest brand with a BSI score of 88.7 out of 100 and a corresponding AAA brand strength rating.Since the bank’s inception nearly two decades ago, Capitec has disrupted the country’s financial services sector and traditional banks, through removing barriers to entry for everyday customers. This approach has led to the brand boasting a vast customer base, with 44% of South Africans banking with them. This number is growing exponentially as more people turn to the brand for its reliability, transparency and reduced fees.View the full Brand Finance South Africa 50 2019 report hereENDSNote to EditorsEvery year, Brand Finance values 5,000 of the world’s biggest brands. The 50 most valuable South African brands are included in the Brand Finance South Africa 50 2019 ranking.Brand value is understood as the net economic benefit that a brand owner would achieve by licensing the brand in the open market. Brand strength is the efficacy of a brand’s performance on intangible measures relative to its competitors.Additional insights, charts, and more information about the methodology, as well as definitions of key terms are available in the Brand Finance South Africa 50 2019 report.Data compiled for the Brand Finance rankings and reports are provided for the benefit of the media and are not to be used for any commercial or technical purpose without written permission from Brand Finance.Media ContactsJeremy SampsonManaging Director, Brand Finance Africa+27 82 [email protected] Florina Cormack-LoydCommunications Manager, Brand Finance plcT: +44 (0)2073 899 400M: +44 (0)7939 118 [email protected] Follow Brand Finance on Twitter @BrandFinance, LinkedIn, Instagram, and Facebook.About Brand FinanceBrand Finance is the world’s leading independent brand valuation consultancy, with offices in over 20 countries. Brand Finance bridges the gap between marketing and finance by quantifying the financial value of brands.Brand Finance helped craft the internationally recognised standard on Brand Valuation – ISO 10668, and the recently approved standard on Brand Evaluation – ISO 20671.Brand Finance is a chartered accountancy firm regulated by the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW), and also the first brand valuation consultancy to join the International Valuation Standards Council (IVSC).Brand Finance’s brand value rankings have been certified by the Marketing Accountability Standards Board (MASB) through the Marketing Metric Audit Protocol (MMAP), the formal process for validating the relationship between marketing measurement and financial performance.MethodologyDefinition of BrandBrand Finance helped to craft the internationally recognised standard on Brand Valuation – ISO 10668. It defines a brand as a marketing-related intangible asset including, but not limited to, names, terms, signs, symbols, logos, and designs, intended to identify goods, services or entities, creating distinctive images and associations in the minds of stakeholders, thereby generating economic benefits.Brand StrengthBrand strength is the efficacy of a brand’s performance on intangible measures, relative to its competitors. In order to determine the strength of a brand, we look at Marketing Investment, Stakeholder Equity, and the impact of those on Business Performance.Each brand is assigned a Brand Strength Index (BSI) score out of 100, which feeds into the brand value calculation. Based on the score, each brand is assigned a corresponding rating up to AAA+ in a format similar to a credit rating.Brand Valuation ApproachBrand Finance calculates the values of the brands in its league tables using the Royalty Relief approach – a brand valuation method compliant with the industry standards set in ISO 10668. It involves estimating the likely future revenues that are attributable to a brand by calculating a royalty rate that would be charged for its use, to arrive at a ‘brand value’ understood as a net economic benefit that a brand owner would achieve by licensing the brand in the open market.The steps in this process are as follows:1 Calculate brand strength using a balanced scorecard of metrics assessing Marketing Investment, Stakeholder Equity and Business Performance. Brand strength is expressed as a Brand Strength Index (BSI) score on a scale of 0 to 100.2 Determine royalty range for each industry, reflecting the importance of brand to purchasing decisions. In luxury, the maximum percentage is high, in extractive industry, where goods are often commoditised, it is lower. This is done by reviewing comparable licensing agreements sourced from Brand Finance’s extensive database.3 Calculate royalty rate. The BSI score is applied to the royalty range to arrive at a royalty rate. For example, if the royalty range in a sector is 0-5% and a brand has a BSI score of 80 out of 100, then an appropriate royalty rate for the use of this brand in the given sector will be 4%.4 Determine brand-specific revenues by estimating a proportion of parent company revenues attributable to a brand.5 Determine forecast revenues using a function of historic revenues, equity analyst forecasts, and economic growth rates.6 Apply the royalty rate to the forecast revenues to derive brand revenues.7 Brand revenues are discounted post-tax to a net present value which equals the brand value.