Heres What It Really Means That Iran Enriched Uranium to 45

first_imgIran claims it has enriched uranium to 4.5%, breaking the limit of 3.67% set during the 2015 nuclear deal. The move was a response to the U.S. violating the terms of the deal under President Donald Trump’s administration. But what does the enrichment news mean? To a certain extent, this is a question with a simple, chemical answer. As the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission explains on its website, uranium comes in a few different forms (or “isotopes”). All of them have the same number of protons (92) but a different number of neutrons. By far, the most common such isotope in nature is uranium-238, which has 146 neutrons. On Earth, this isotope makes up 99.3% of any sample of naturally occurring uranium. But for nuclear reactors (or bombs), that flavor isn’t very useful. Dense clusters of uranium-238 don’t tend to start nuclear chain reactions. The second most common isotope, however, uranium-235 (making up just about 0.7% of any sample of natural uranium and containing 143 neutrons), does tend to start nuclear chain reactions. In these reactions, the nuclei of the uranium atoms split into smaller nuclei and release neutrons. Those neutrons then cause other nuclei to split, releasing more neutrons for a self-sustaining “chain” reaction that emits enormous amounts of energy. [Top 10 Ways to Destroy Earth] Headbutting Tiny Worms Are Really, Really LoudThis rapid strike produces a loud ‘pop’ comparable to those made by snapping shrimps, one of the most intense biological sounds measured at sea.Your Recommended PlaylistVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Why Is It ‘Snowing’ Salt in the Dead Sea?01:53 facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65898-iran-uranium-enrichment.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0000:3500:35  Enriching uranium is the process of sorting uranium-238 atoms out of a uranium sample such that the sample includes a higher proportion of uranium-235. Uranium enriched to 3.67% is 3.67% uranium-235. Uranium enriched to 4.5% is 4.5% uranium-235. And so on.  So does Iran’s breaking of its enrichment threshold mean that the country is now significantly closer to having a bomb?  Not really. As the Associated Press reported, 4.5% is enriched enough for Iran to power its peaceful, already-active Bushehr nuclear reactor. But that level falls far short of the standard 90% threshold for “weapons-grade” uranium. And enriching uranium to 90% is an enormous technical challenge. It requires building and operating very advanced centrifuges. If you’ve followed news of international attempts to sabotage the Iranian nuclear effort, you know that the most successful effort — a computer virus called Stuxnet — attacked Iranian centrifuges. Centrifuges are common enough pieces of laboratory equipment. They spin samples of material around so as to generate centrifugal force. Under that intense force, heavier and lighter materials tend to separate. However, a common laboratory centrifuge is nowhere near powerful enough to separate uranium-235 from uranium-238. The two isotopes are nearly, but not quite, identical in mass. And a sample of uranium contains very little uranium-235. As Live Science previously reported, a country seeking to enrich uranium must first transform a uranium sample into a gas. Then, that gas must be whipped up to intense speeds in powerful industrial centrifuges to cause the two isotopes to separate, before the uranium atoms get extracted from the gas once again. To extract the 137 lbs. (62 kilograms) of uranium-235 necessary to build the bomb dubbed “Little Boy” that was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, the United States in 1945 expended a full 10% of its national energy supply, according to “The Making of the Atomic Bomb” (Simon & Schuster, 1995). The original uranium sample weighed 4 tons (3,600 kilograms). And 20,000 people helped build the refining facility that made the bomb, a facility that required 12,000 people to operate. It’s not infeasible that Iran could enrich a significant stockpile of weapons-grade uranium. But the 4.5% mark doesn’t represent a significant step in that direction, except in symbolic terms. Iran has also threatened to enrich uranium to 20%, which is closer but still not weapons grade. The question now is whether the breakdown of the nuclear deal, precipitated by the U.S., continues to escalate tensions. Originally published on Live Science.by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeVikings: Free Online GamePlay this for 1 minute and see why everyone is addictedVikings: Free Online GameUndoTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionOne Thing All Liars Have in Common, Brace YourselfTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionUndoKelley Blue Book2019 Lexus Vehicles Worth Buying for Their Resale ValueKelley Blue BookUndoPrimeSolarQuotesCalifornia Signs Solar Law Helping Homeowners Save Hundreds A Month.PrimeSolarQuotesUndoAncestryThe Story Behind Your Last Name Will Surprise YouAncestryUndoFinance101Oprah’s Mansion Costs $90 Million, And This Is What It Looks LikeFinance101Undo 5 Weird Things You Didn’t Know About Chernobyl What’s That? Your Physics Questions Answered The Biggest Unsolved Mysteries in Physicslast_img read more

Why Blue Fireworks Are So Rare

first_img Paul E. Smith, Lecture Demonstrator for Chemistry, Purdue University This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeVikings: Free Online GamePlay this for 1 min and see why everyone is addicted!Vikings: Free Online GameUndoBeverly Hills MDPlastic Surgeon Reveals: “You Can Fill In Wrinkles At Home” (Here’s How)Beverly Hills MDUndoTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionOne Thing All Liars Have in Common, Brace YourselfTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionUndoKelley Blue Book2019 Lexus Vehicles Worth Buying for Their Resale ValueKelley Blue BookUndoBirch Gold GroupThis IRS Tax Law is Sweeping the U.S.Birch Gold GroupUndoSub Compact SUVs | Search AdsThese SUVs Are The Cream Of The Crop. Research Best New Sub Compact SUVSub Compact SUVs | Search AdsUndo In the earliest days of the United States, John Adams wrote to his wife Abigail about the celebration of independence, “It ought to be solemnized with Pomp and Parade, with Shews, Games, Sports, Guns, Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other from this Time forward forever more.” “Bonfires and illuminations” refer directly to what we know as pyrotechnics and firework displays. I’m a chemist and also president of Pyrotechnics Guild International, an organization that promotes the safe use of fireworks and using them here in the U.S. to celebrate Independence Day and other festivals throughout the year. As a chemist, and someone who leads demonstrations for chemistry students, I consider fireworks a great example of combustion reactions that produce colored fire. But the invention of colored fireworks is relatively recent and not all colors are easy to produce. Early history of fireworks Firecrackers were first invented serendipitously by the Chinese in 200 B.C. But it wasn’t until one thousand years later that Chinese alchemists developed fireworks in 800 A.D. These early fireworks were mostly bright and noisy concoctions designed to scare evil spirits — not the colorful, controlled explosions we see today. Fast forward another millennium and the Italians figured out how to add color by introducing various elements to the flammable mix. Adding the element strontium to a color pyrotechnic mix produces a red flame; copper, blue; barium, green; and sodium for yellow.Headbutting Tiny Worms Are Really, Really LoudThis rapid strike produces a loud ‘pop’ comparable to those made by snapping shrimps, one of the most intense biological sounds measured at sea.Your Recommended PlaylistVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Why Is It ‘Snowing’ Salt in the Dead Sea?01:53 facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65860-why-blue-fireworks-are-rare.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0000:3500:35  Too much or too little of the chemicals make significant changes in the temperature and thus the wavelength of color seen. The proper mixture of chemicals when ignited produce enough energy to excite electrons to give off different colors of light. Even though the chemistry of these colors isn’t new, each generation seems to get excited by the colors splashed across the sky. We now have a wide range of flame colors: red, green, blue, yellow, purple, and variations of these. Each color works the same way. As different elements ignite they release different wavelengths of light which translate as different colors. Making that perfect blue firework Not all colors of fireworks are equally easy to create. I believe several of my colleagues in pyrotechnic research and development would agree with me that blue is the most difficult color to produce. That is because the evening sky is a shade of blue, which means that most blues do not show up as well. If you try to make the blue brighter to contrast with the background it can look washed out. The right balance of copper and other chemicals in the flame or combustion reaction produce the best blue color flame in a firework. I have taken this into account when trying to create the best blue flame color, which I call pill box blue. It is just bright enough to stand out against the night sky but still a rich blue. I have over 20 blue pyrotechnic formulas and I have found one that comes very close to this elusive hue. Another difficulty in creating an intense blue color is that the chemistry is not simple. It requires a combination of several chemicals and the element copper. When copper ignites, the electrons surrounding the copper atoms get excited and energized in the flame. When the electrons release this energy, it appears to observers as blue light. Each color works the same way. As different elements ignite they release different wavelengths of light which translate as different colors. So when you see blue-colored dots of light creating a pattern in the night sky, you really are seeing excited electrons releasing energy as blue light. [Expertise in your inbox. Sign up for The Conversation’s newsletter and get a digest of academic takes on today’s news, every day.]last_img read more

Shah on twoday visit to pollbound Chhattisgarh

first_imgCOMMENTS October 11, 2018 SHARE SHARE EMAIL File Photo   –  The Hindu Published on COMMENT Chhattisgarhcenter_img state politics political campaigns SHARE political candidates BJP chief Amit Shah will be on a two-day visit to poll-bound Chhattisgarh from Friday, during which he will address the booth-level workers of the party at four places. This will be Shah’s third visit to the state within a month. The Assembly polls in Chhattisgarh are scheduled to be held in two phases next month. “With an aim to re-energise the booth-level party workers, division-level conventions are being held on October 12 and 13, which will be addressed by Shah,” BJP state general secretary, Santosh Pandey told PTI.The ruling party had set a target of “Mission 65 plus” in the 90-member Chhattisgarh Assembly and therefore, it was focussing on strengthening its booth-level workers, he said. Shah will visit Ambikapur and Bilaspur towns on Friday to address the workers. “After the programme in Bilaspur, he is scheduled to interact with a group of lawyers,” Pandey said. On October 13, the BJP chief will address party workers at Jagdalpur under Bastar division. Subsequently, he will also address the workers of Durg and Raipur divisions in state capital Raipur, he added. “During his whirlwind tour, Shah will directly interact with the party workers of 23,632 booths,” Pandey said. According to BJP sources, after Shah’s visit, the aspirants for the upcoming polls will be shortlisted and the party’s Central Election Committee will later announce the names of the candidates. As per the Election Commission’s (EC’s) poll schedule, the 18 Naxalism-hit constituencies of the state will go to the polls in the first phase on November 12, while polling for the rest of the 72 constituencies will be held on November 20. The counting of votes will be taken up on December 11. The BJP has been in power in Chhattisgarh since 2003. last_img read more

Ayodhya case Fivejudge bench headed by CJI to begin hearing from January

first_imgcourts and legal Prime Minister had suggested that any decision on an ordinance on Ram temple can happen only after the completion of judicial process RELATED Published on January 08, 2019 SHARE The Supreme Court on Tuesday set up a five-judge Constitution Bench to hear the Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid land title dispute case.The bench will be headed by Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi and also comprise of Justices S A Bobde, N V Ramana, U U Lalit and D Y Chandrachud.The Constitution Bench is scheduled to hear the matter on January 10. “Take notice that the following matters (petitions in the Ayodhya land dispute) will be listed on Thursday the 10th January, 2019 at 10.30 AM in Chief Justice’s court before the constitution bench comprising the Chief Justice, S A Bobde, N V Ramana, Uday Umesh Lalit and Dr D Y Chandrchud, JJ,” said a notice, which was uploaded on the apex court website.On January 4, the top court had said that further orders in the matter would be passed on January 10 by “the appropriate bench, as may be constituted“.As many as 14 appeals have been filed in the apex court against the 2010 Allahabad High Court judgement, delivered in four civil suits, that the 2.77-acre land be partitioned equally among the three parties — the Sunni Waqf Board, the Nirmohi Akhara and Ram Lalla.The apex court on October 29 last year had fixed the matter in the first week of January before the “appropriate bench“.Later, an application was moved for according an urgent hearing by advancing the date, but the top court had refused the plea, saying it had already passed an order on October 29 relating to the hearing of the matter.The plea for early hearing was moved by the Akhil Bharat Hindu Mahasabha (ABHM) which is one of the respondents in the appeal filed by legal heirs of M Siddiq, one of the original litigants in the case.A three-judge bench of the top court had on September 27 last year, by 2:1 majority, refused to refer to a five-judge constitution bench the issue of reconsideration of the observations in its 1994 judgement that a mosque was not integral to Islam. The matter had arisen during the hearing of the Ayodhya land dispute.Various Hindutva organisations have been demanding an ordinance on early construction of Ram temple at the disputed site. Recently, Prime Minister Narendra Modi had suggested that any decision on an ordinance on Ram temple in Ayodhya can happen only after the completion of the judicial process.Modi’s comments had come amidst heightened demands by Hindutava organisations, including the RSS, for an ordinance for an early construction of the temple.“Let the judicial process take its own course. Don’t weigh it in political terms. Let the judicial process be over. After the judicial process is over, whatever be our responsibility as government, we are ready to make all efforts,” the prime minister had said during an interview, broadcast by several TV channels. COMMENTScenter_img What Ayodhya has lost in temple politics Rajasthan Assembly pollsCongress threatened SC judges with impeachment who tried to hear Ayodhya cases: PM COMMENT Ayodhya SHARE SHARE EMAIL VHP, BJP whip up rhetoric on Ayodhyalast_img read more

Andhra Pradesh to reconsider buying power from new green projects

first_imgPublished on The Andhra Pradesh government is also renegotiating existing agreement for higher tariff   –  THE HINDU SHARE SHARE EMAIL SHARE renewable energy Andhra Pradesh The State government is likely to scrap the agreements for the projects in pipeline COMMENT July 04, 2019  The Andhra Pradesh government is considering scrapping its decision to enter into power purchase agreements for all upcoming clean energy projects.The so-called in-pipeline projects under review include 21 wind power plants, a 600 megawatt hybrid project by Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy SA and another one by Axis Energy Group, according to the minutes of a June 26 meeting by Chief Minister Y.S. Jaganmohan Reddy reviewed by Bloomberg.The move is an effort by the newly elected state government to unravel the ad-hoc processes to award projects in the past and to ensure transparency in the power sector, according to PV Ramesh, special chief secretary to Reddy, who was part of the discussions and verified the authenticity of the document seen by Bloomberg.A committee of senior cabinet ministers has been set up to look into the issues raised, the official said by phone, adding that some of the in-pipeline projects were in the process of implementation.Andhra Pradesh’s decision could adversely impact the Centre’s goal of installing 175 gigawatts of renewable capacity by 2022. The South Asian nation has awarded some of the world’s lowest green energy tariffs and became the biggest auctioneer of solar and wind capacity last year, according to Bloomberg NEF. The Narendra Modi’s administration has managed to achieve less than half of the target currently.Read also: Green energy to constitute over half of India’s capacity addition by 2030The state government is also looking to cancel the short-term power purchase pacts with Lanco Infratech Ltd. and Spectrum Power Generation Ltd. for their natural gas-based plants and re-allocate the fuel to the GMR Vemagiri plant. Its also looking to scrap a land allotment to Greenko Group for a solar-wind hybrid project.Read more: Andhra CM trains guns on TDP, Chandrababu againSiemens Gamesa’s spokesman and Greenko’s spokeswoman didn’t respond to emails seeking comment. Axis Energy officials weren’t immediately reachable. Lanco and Spectrum officials didn’t immediately respond to requests for comment.The state has said separately it will renegotiate some power purchase agreements for renewable projects to improve the finances of its electricity retailers, which owe ₹20,000 crore ($2.9 billion) to generators mainly because of abnormally priced wind and solar power purchase agreements.Andhra Pradesh had 7.7 gigawatts of installed renewable and 14.6 gigawatts of fossil-fuel power capacity at the end of May, government data shows. COMMENTSlast_img read more

Education Malaysia Global Services expresses regret over death of Nigerian student

first_img“The case is currently under investigation and we will wait for the full findings of the authorities. Our thoughts and prayers go to Mr Thomas’ family,” it said in a post.Ewansiha, who was from Nigeria, was pursuing his PhD in management at the Limkokwing University of Creative Technology and was married with two young children.EMGS, a wholly-owned company of the Education Ministry, operates a one-stop centre for international student services together with the Immigration Department.  Related News Tags / Keywords: World 07 Jul 2019 Boko Haram kills at least five soldiers in northeast Nigeria – sources PETALING JAYA: Education Malaysia Global Services (EMGS) expressed its regret and deepest condolences over the death of Thomas Orhions Ewansiha in its Instagram account on Friday evening (July12). {{category}} {{time}} {{title}} Related News World 09 Jul 2019 Nigeria’s National Assembly on lockdown after shooting – Reuters witness Education Malaysia Global Services , EMGS , Thomas Orhions Ewansihalast_img read more